Abbreviations can be a bit of a mine field at first but they soon become second nature, here are some of the most common ones that I use within my patterns.
ch – chain
sl st – slip stitch
st – stitch
dc – double crochet
tc – treble crochet
htc – half treble crochet
dc2tog – double crochet 2 together
tc2tog – treble crochet 2 together
htc2tog – half treble crochet 2 together
* – repeat instructions within asterisk
There are plenty more, but I don’t seem to use more than these.
Hope that’s helpful!